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American Government: Power and Purpose , Core 11th Edition by Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, Kenneth A. Shepsle,

By Theodore J. Lowi, Benjamin Ginsberg, Kenneth A. Shepsle, Stephen Ansolabehere

The top textual content for instructing scholars to imagine analytically approximately American politics.

during this significant revision, new co-author Stephen Ansolabehere sharpens the modern analytical standpoint within the political habit chapters, and a brand new primer on “Analyzing proof” in bankruptcy 1 units the level for sections in each bankruptcy that spotlight the political technology in the back of the findings said within the textual content. through the booklet, the authors have built-in the preferred 5 ideas of Politics framework extra deeply into every one chapter’s analysis.

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The Same Thing Everybody Else Does),” Supreme Court Economic Review 3 (1993): 1–41. FIVE PRINCIPLES OF POLITICS 9 In each of these instances, we can postulate motivations for political actors that seem to fit the political context in which they are found. These motivations often have a strong element of self-interest, but they may be broadened out to incorporate “enlightened self-interest,” including the welfare of others (such as their families), the entire society, or even all of humanity. The Institution Principle: Institutions Structure Politics institutions The rules and procedures that provide incentives for political behavior, thereby shaping politics.

And because of these risks, legislators think about their moves before they make them—sometimes carefully, sometimes not; sometimes correctly, sometimes not. But whatever actions they take or decide against taking, they make their choices with forethought, with deliberation, with calculation. Their actions are not knee-jerk but are, in a word, instrumental. Individuals think through the benefits and the costs of a decision, speculate about future effects, and weigh the risks of their decision. Making decisions is all about weighing probabilities of various events and determining the personal value of various outcomes.

For example, if each farmer values the mended fence at $700, but the cost to repair it on his own is $1,000, the net benefit to one farmer repairing it alone ($700 minus $1,000) is less than zero—and thus not an attractive option. If they shared the cost equally, their net benefit would each be V–c/2, in our example, $700 minus $500—a positive net benefit of $200 to both. If one of the farmers, however, could off-load the entire project on his neighbor, then he would not have to bear any of the cost and would enjoy the mended fence valued by him at V ($700).

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