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Allergy by S. Holgate, et. al.

By S. Holgate, et. al.

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3). ICAM-1 deficient mice show substantially impaired lymphocyte and eosinophil trafficking into airways following antigen challenge. VCAM-1 VCAM-1 is another member of the Ig superfamily that is expressed on endothelial cells and binds to the β1 integrin VLA-4. Basal expression of VCAM-1 on endothelial cells is very low, and is up-regulated by cytokines including IL-4, IL-13, and TNF-α. MAdCAM-1 MAdCAM-1 (mucosal address in cell adhesion molecule-1) is expressed by endothelial cells and is a major ligand for the β7 integrin α4β7 expressed by leukocytes such as eosinophils.

Nose, lung, skin)  Cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules play a key role in regulating the immune and inflammatory responses during episodes of allergic inflammation  Anti-IgE, leukotriene antagonists, and anti-IL-5 are examples of therapies that have targeted specific pathways associated with allergic inflammation  Acknowledgement The authors acknowledge the contributions of Natalija Novak, Thomas Bieber and Patrick G Holt (Ch. 19; 3rd edition), Catherine M Hawrylowicz, Donald W 31 1 Introduction to mechanisms of allergic disease MacGlashan, Hirohisa Saito, Hans-Uwe Simon, Andrew J Wardlaw (Ch.

The mechanism of bronchoconstriction is complex and results from a combination of bronchial smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability leading to oedema, and increased airway mucus production. Histamine, PGD2, and CysLTs all have the ability to contract human bronchial smooth muscle. In addition to causing bronchoconstriction, histamine and the CysLTs can increase vascular permeability and stimulate mucus production. The LPR in the lung is associated with significant recruitment of eosinophils.

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