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All the Shah's Men: An American Coup and the Roots of Middle by Stephen Kinzer

By Stephen Kinzer

With breezy storytelling and diligent examine, Kinzer has reconstructed the CIA's 1953 overthrow of the elected chief of Iran, Mohammad Mossadegh, who was once wildly renowned at domestic for having nationalized his country's oil undefined.

The coup ushered within the lengthy and brutal dictatorship of Mohammad Reza Shah, largely obvious as a U.S. puppet and himself overthrown through the Islamic revolution of 1979. At its most sensible this paintings reads like a undercover agent novel, with code names and informants, middle of the night conferences with the monarch and a last-minute plot twist while the CIA's plan, known as Operation Ajax, approximately is going awry.

A veteran long island instances international correspondent and the writer of books on Nicaragua (Blood of Brothers) and Turkey (Crescent and Star), Kinzer has combed memoirs, educational works, executive files and information tales to supply this blow-by-blow account. He exhibits that till early in 1953, nice Britain and the Anglo-Iranian Oil corporation have been the imperialist baddies of this story. Intransigent within the face of Iran's calls for for a fairer proportion of oil gains and higher stipulations for staff, British overseas Secretary Herbert Morrison exacerbated rigidity along with his perspective that the problem from Iran used to be, in Kinzer's phrases, "a uncomplicated subject of ignorant natives rebelling opposed to the forces of civilization." earlier than the main issue peaked, a high-ranking worker of Anglo-Iranian wrote to an outstanding that the company's alliance with the "corrupt ruling classes" and "leech-like bureaucracies" have been "disastrous, superseded and impractical."

This stands as a textbook lesson in how to not behavior overseas policy.

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The executive, the legislative, and the judiciary). Scheduler (1999)15, in his discussion of accountability delineated two main strands of the concept namely; the answerability and enforcement. Answerability implies stewardship and the obligation to justify one’s actions and decisions in the office one holds. In a democracy, it also obligates government officials to provide information when required or demanded by the citizens. Since citizens cannot supervise government officials on a day-to-day basis, they have mandated various government agencies with oversight authority, thereby giving these agencies legitimate powers to demand answerability from the office bearers.

The economic situation in Sub-Saharan Africa illustrates the above very well. Despite the democratization euphoria that characterized the region since the early 1990s, and the belief that democracy is a panacea for economic development, the region’s development challenges are still enormous. The UNDP (2004)18 records that it is the only region in the world where poverty has increased in the past 25 years; and half of the continent’s population of 840 million people lives on less than a dollar a day.

Such exclusions to accessing government information must be clearly stipulated in national information access laws. The next section will discuss the importance of creating an enabling environment to achieve National Information access Laws. 5. Status of Legislation of National Information Access Laws By ratifying and acceding to the African Charter on Human and People’s Rights, African Heads of State endorsed their political will to uphold Article 9 of the Charter. However, this must be translated into action by passing National Information Access Laws.

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