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After Thought: The Computer Challenge To Human Intelligence by James Bailey

By James Bailey

Through the 1st fifty years of the pc revolution, scientists were attempting to application digital circuits to method details an identical means people do. Doing so has reassured us all that underlying each new desktop strength, irrespective of how miraculously quick or complicated, are human proposal procedures and good judgment. yet state-of-the-art computing device scientists are coming to determine that digital circuits rather are alien, that the variation among the human brain and computing device power isn't really simply one in every of measure (how fast), yet of kind(how). the writer means that desktops “think” top while their “thoughts” are allowed to emerge from the interaction of hundreds of thousands of tiny operations all interacting with one another in parallel. Why then, if pcs convey to the desk such very diversified strengths and weaknesses, are we nonetheless attempting to software them to imagine like people? a piece that levels broadly over the heritage of principles from Galileo to Newton to Darwin but is simply as cozy within the state of the art global of parallel processing that's at this very second yielding a brand new type of intelligence, After suggestion describes why the true desktop age is simply beginning.

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6 It was unthinkable that the heavens go faster or slower, because they were the definitions of time as well as of motion. The two competing concep- THE FIRST FICTION 47 tions of time, one geometric and the other numerical, manifested themselves explicitly in the forerunners to the mechanical clock. The most famous of these early devices, known as the di Dondi clock after its designer, was a miniature version of the heavens themselves. All the major motions of the planets were carried out in obsessive detail.

Ambo rumlf ad AC Ibxam para Gal rmoIutIo lIa. c.. iaprzu,. ia addIr. palVlllpU .... ffiicft qudcI cunltem fiacricin •• malli_ dIlcict Soli...... gram. in a minimum: in mcdijo IUum circumfcccntijo ipGUI' 0 cpl.. 1. The scientific thought processes of the ancient Greeks were expressed in circles and lines instead of the numbers and equations we use in our maths today. Their understanding of the peculiar behavior of the planets, for example, was summarized in two classic diagrams. The eccentric diagram, on the left, sets the circular orbits of the planets slightly offcenter from the view point.

By the time of Isaac Newton, the behavior of the world was coming to be routinely expressed in numbers and equations. Even traditional geometric objects like the moon were being reinvented into the vocabulary of pace and number. At last we learn where/ore the silver moon Once seemed to travel with unequal steps, As i/ she scorned to suit her pace to numbersTill now made clear to no astronomer. "7The new orthodoxy spread even beyond the physical sciences. Mainstream economists believe proper [theoretical] models-good models-take a recognizable form; presentation in equations .

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