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Advances in Computers, Vol. 33 by Marshall C. Yovits

By Marshall C. Yovits

This quantity in a chain detailing suggestions in undefined, software program and the theory/design/applications of desktops, is anxious with reusable software program parts, object-oriented modelling, discrete occasion simulation, and neurocomputing formalisms in computer studying and visualization.

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WElDE et al. component as a layer on top of the more primitive nondefensive one is a possible use that a designer should anticipate. Two other things that can be anticipated as possible client needs are copying and equality testing for an exported type. In the case of a composite type such as a Stack, which holds Items of another arbitrary type, these operations cannot be implemented without copying and equality-testing operations for the type Item. Their abstract effects can be specified, however, in reusable form: concept Copying-Capability context parameters type Item interface operation Replica (original : Item) returns copy : Item ensures copy = original end Copying-Capability concept Equality-Testing-Capability context parameters type Item interface operation Are-Equal (x : Item, y : Item) returns control ensures Are-Equal iff (x = y) end Equality-Testing-Capability These concepts can be generic because RESOLVE‘S specification language (like most) includes equality as a predicate for every mathematical type.

Some concrete components may dominate others completely, but in general it is far more likely that competing ones are simply incomparable in the sense that one is “better” for some operations or along some dimensions, while others are “better” for other operations or along other dimensions. A client program may use any concrete component that correctly implements the abstract interface. , he or she reasons about Stacks as though they are STRINGS. The need for efficiency has two major implications.

Therefore, a purchased component usually will require-in fact, will permitno maintenance effort by the client. A custom part produced in-house is subject to the usual problems and expenses of maintenance. Moreover, a concrete component that forces the programmer to go through difficult gymnastics in order to achieve the desired efficiency is likely to be even more of a maintenance headache than the average program. 22 BRUCE W. WEIDE et a / . Methods for designing concepts and languages for defining content of components, then, are subject to an important criterion: An abstract component design, in conjunction with the programming language in which it is to be realized, must not make it difficult or impossible to build multiple efficient concrete components that implement the design.

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