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A Brief History of the Netherlands (Brief History) by Paul F State

By Paul F State

Regardless of the country's small dimension, the Netherlands has performed a comparatively huge half within the background of trade, govt, paintings, and faith, and it has left an indelible imprint on all the world's continents. this article presents a basic evaluate of the historical past of the rustic from precedent days onwards.

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The growth of local autonomy proved inexorable, a growth necessitated to some degree because only leaders located onsite could exercise effective control in managing the resources needed to administer and, most essentially, defend their territories. Threats, when they came, arrived by sea. The Vikings, Scandinavian seafarers, had been raiding isolated monasteries in the northern British Isles since the 790s, when they began to 13 A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE NETHERLANDS move south. They launched their first major attack in the Netherlands in 810 when a fleet of 200 long ships arrived off Frisia.

The emperor’s wooden palace at Nijmegen became a subsidiary residence. The Frisian settlement of Dorestad (present-day Wijk bij Duurstede) on the Rhine southeast of Utrecht flourished as the largest mercantile town in northern Europe. An imperial mint here produced coins (the Dorestad coin) much imitated across Europe. Territorial divisions soon appeared that narrowed borders. The Low Countries—defined at this time as the low-lying regions around the deltas of the great rivers including not only the present-day countries of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg but also Westphalia and the Rhineland in Germany—formed part of the lands of the Middle Kingdom assigned to Charlemagne’s eldest grandson Lothair I (795–855) by the Treaty of Verdun (843).

Before his death, he subdivided his kingdom, establishing a Kingdom of Lotharingia ruled by his son Lothair II (r. 855–69). On Lothair II’s death in 869, his uncles Charles the Bald (r. 843–77) and Louis the German (r. 817–76)) signed a treaty at Meersen in present-day Limburg dividing the kingdom between them. Charles took the territories comprising today’s Netherlands and Belgium to join them to his West Frankish kingdom while Louis, king of the East Franks, took Alsace and the left bank of the lower Rhine.

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